Friday, 31 August 2012

KRDS


KRDS
Question ID 1
Choose the selection that best matches the following statements:
PHP is a _____ scripting language based on the ____ engine. It is primarily used to develop dynamic _____ content, although it can be used to generate ____ documents (among others) as well.
                        Dynamic, PHP, Database, HTML
                        Embedded, Zend, HTML, XML
                        Perl-based, PHP, Web, Static
                        Embedded, Zend, Docbook, MySQL
                        Zend-based, PHP, Image, HTML
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: Embedded, Zend, HTML, XML
Question ID 2
Which of the following tags is the valid way to begin and end a PHP code block?
                        <% %>
                        <? ?>
                        <! !>
                        <?php ?>
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: <?php ?>
Question ID 3
Which of the following is not valid PHP code?
                        $_10
                        ${“MyVar”}
                        &$something
                        $10_somethings
                        $aVaR
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: $10_somethings
Question ID 4
What is displayed when the following script is executed?
<?php
define(myvalue, "10");
$myarray[10] = "Dog";

$myarray[] = "Human";
$myarray['myvalue'] = "Cat";
$myarray["Dog"] = "Cat";
print "The value is: ";
print $myarray[myvalue]."\n";
?>
                        The value is: Dog
                        The value is: Cat
                        The value is: Human
                        The value is: 10
                        Dog
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: The value is: Dog
Question ID 5
What is the difference between print() and echo()?
                        print() can be used as part of an expression, while echo() can’t
                        echo() can be used as part of an expression, while print() can’t
                        echo() can be used in the CLI version of PHP, while print() can’t
                        print() can be used in the CLI version of PHP, while echo() can’t
                        There’s no difference: there are alias
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: print() can be used as part of an expression, while echo() can’t
Question ID 6
Which language construct can best represent the following series of if conditionals?
<?php
if($a == 'a') {
somefunction();
} else if ($a == 'b') {
anotherfunction();
} else if ($a == 'c') {
dosomething();
} else {
donothing();
}
?>
                        A switch statement without a default case
                        A recursive function call
                        A while statement
                        It is the only representation of this logic
                        A switch statement using a default case
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: A switch statement using a default case
Question ID 7
What is the best way to iterate through the $myarray array, assuming you want to modify the value of each element as you do?
<?php
$myarray = array ("My String",
"Another String",
"Hi, Mom!");
?>
                        Using a for loop
                        Using a foreach loop
                        Using a while loop
                        Using a do…while loop
                        There is no way to accomplish this goal
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: Using a for loop
Question ID 8
What is the value displayed when the following is executed? Assume that the code was executed using the following URL:
testscript.php?c=25
<?php
function process($c, $d = 25)
{
global $e;
$retval = $c + $d - $_GET['c'] - $e;
return $retval;
}
$e = 10;
echo process(5);
?>
                        25
                        -5
                        10
                        5
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: -5
Question ID 9
Run-time inclusion of a PHP script is performed using the ________ construct, while compile-time inclusion of PHP scripts is performed using the _______ construct.
                        include_once, include
                        require, include
                        require_once, include
                        include, require
                        All of the above are correct
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: All of the above are correct
Question ID 10
How does the identity operator === compare two values?
                        It converts them to a common compatible data type and then compares the resulting values
                        It returns True only if they are both of the same type and value
                        If the two values are strings, it performs a lexical comparison
                        It bases its comparison on the C strcmp function exclusively
                        It converts both values to strings and compares them
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: It returns True only if they are both of the same type and value
Question ID 11
How can a script come to a clean termination?
                        When exit() is called
                        When the execution reaches the end of the current file
                        When PHP crashes
                        When Apache terminates because of a system problem
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: When exit() is called
Question ID 12
Which function does return the number of seconds elapsed since the 1st January 1970?
                        time()
                        timestamp()
                        mktime()
                        microtime()
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: mktime()
Question ID 13
In which array are the cookies sent by the browser?
                        $COOKIES
                        $HTTP_COOKIES
                        $_COOKIE
                        $HTTP_COOKIES_VARS
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: $_COOKIE
Question ID 14
How to sort an array by key?
                        $a = ksort($a);
                        ksort($a)
                        $a = rsort($a);
                        rsort($a);
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: ksort($a);
Question ID 15
How to define a constant in PHP?
                        set(‘MY_CONST’, 10);
                        set(‘MY_CONST’=10);
                        define(‘MY_CONST’, 10);
                        const $my_const = 10;
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: define(‘MY_CONST’, 10);
Question ID 16
What is PHP?
                        Page Helper Process
                        Programming Home Pages
                        PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor
Question ID 17
How to get the length of an ANSI string using PHP?
                        strlen()
                        strlength()
                        length()
                        substr()
                        size()
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: strlen()
Question ID 18
How many times the following loop will be executed?
<?php
for($i=0 ; $i<=3 ; $i++ ) { echo $i; }
?>
                        2
                        3
                        4
                        0, there is a parse error
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: 4
Question ID 19
How to count the number of elements in an array using PHP?
                        size($a);
                        count($a);
                        countOf($a);
                        length($a);
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: count($a);


Question ID 20
How to connect to a MySQL database in PHP?
                        connect_mysql(“localhost”);
                        mysql_open(“localhost”);
                        dbopen(“localhost”);
                        mysql_connect(“localhost”);
                        mysql_select_db();
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: mysql_connect(“localhost”);
Question ID 21
All variables in PHP start with which symbol?
                        &
                        $
                        !
                        _
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: $
Question ID 22
How do you get information from a form that is submitted using the “get” method?
                        Request.QueryString;
                        $_GET[];
                        Request.Form;
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: $_GET[];
Question ID 23
When using the POST method, variables are displayed in the URL:
                        True
                        False
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: False

Question ID 24
In PHP you can use both single quotes ( ‘ ‘ ) and double quotes ( ” ” ) for strings:
                        True
                        False
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: True
Question ID 25
Include files must have the file extension “.inc”
                        True
                        False
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: False
Question ID 26
What is the correct way to create a function in PHP?
                        create myFunction()
                        new_function myFunction()
                        function myFunction()
                        myFunction()
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: function myFunction()
Question ID 27
What is the correct way to add 1 to the $count variable?
                        $count =+1;
                        ++count;
                        $count++;
                        count++;
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: $count =+1;


Question ID 28
What is a correct way to add a comment in PHP?
                        /*…*/
                        <!–…–>
                        *…*
                        <comment>…</comment>
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: /*…*/

Question ID 29
In PHP 5, MySQL support is enabled by default:
                        True
                        False
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: False
[Note1: For PHP 5, 5.1 or 5.2, MySQL is not enabled by default
Note 2: In PHP 5.3 and above, MySQL Native Driver is used by default for MySQL database extensions. So, MySQL support is enabled by default]
Question ID 30
What does SQL stand for?
                        Strong Question Language
                        Structured Question Language
                        Structured Query Language
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: Structured Query Language
Question ID 31
Which SQL statement is used to extract data from a database?
                        EXTRACT
                        OPEN
                        GET
                        SELECT
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: SELECT
Question ID 32
Which SQL statement is used to update data in a database?
                        SAVE
                        MODIFY
                        SAVE AS
                        ALTER
                        UPDATE
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: UPDATE
Question ID 33
Which SQL statement is used to delete data from a database?
                        REMOVE
                        DELETE
                        COLLAPSE
                        ALTER
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: DELETE
Question ID 34
Which SQL statement is used to insert new data in a database?
                        INSERT IN
                        INSERT INTO
                        INSERT NEW
                        ALTER
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: INSERT INTO
Question ID 35
With SQL, how do you select all the columns from a table named “Persons”?
                        SELECT * FROM Persons
                        SELECT Persons
                        SELECT [all] FROM Persons
                        SELECT *.Persons
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: SELECT * FROM Persons
Question ID 36
With SQL, how do you select all the records from a table named “Persons” where the value of the column “FirstName” starts with an “a”?
                        SELECT * FROM Persons WHERE FirstName LIKE ‘%a’
                        SELECT * FROM Persons WHERE FirstName LIKE ‘a%’
                        SELECT * FROM Persons WHERE FirstName=’%a%’
                        SELECT * FROM Persons WHERE FirstName=’a’
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: SELECT * FROM Persons WHERE FirstName LIKE ‘a%’
Question ID 37
Which SQL statement is used to return only different values?
                        SELECT UNIQUE
                        SELECT DIFFERENT
                        SELECT DISTINCT
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: SELECT DISTINCT
Question ID 38
Which SQL keyword is used to sort the result-set?
                        ORDER
                        ORDER BY
                        SORT
                        SORT BY
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: ORDER BY
Question ID 39
With SQL, how can you insert a new record into the “Persons” table?
                        INSERT VALUES (‘Jimmy’, ‘Jackson’) INTO Persons
                        INSERT INTO Persons VALUES (‘Jimmy’, ‘Jackson’)
                        INSERT (‘Jimmy’, ‘Jackson’) INTO Persons
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: INSERT INTO Persons VALUES (‘Jimmy’, ‘Jackson’)
Question ID 40
Inside which HTML element do we put the JavaScript?
                        <js>
                        <scripting>
                        <javascript>
                        <script>
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: <script>
Question ID 41
What is the correct syntax for referring to an external script called “xxx.js”?
                        <script href=”xxx.js”>
                        <script>
                        <script src=”xxx.js”>
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: <script src=”xxx.js”>
Question ID 42
An external JavaScript must contain the <script> tag
                        True
                        False
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: False
Question ID 43
How do you write “Hello World” in an alert box in JavaScript?
                        alertBox(“Hello World”)
                        alertBox=”Hello World”
                        msgBox(“Hello World”)
                        alert(“Hello World”)
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: alert(“Hello World”)
Question ID 44
How do you create a javascript function?
                        function myFunction()
                        function=myFunction()
                        function:myFunction()
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: function myFunction()


Question ID 45
How do you call a function named “myFunction” in JavaScript?
                        call myFunction
                        call myFunction()
                        myFunction()
                        function myFunction()
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: myFunction()
Question ID 46
How do you write a conditional statement for executing some statements only if “i” is equal to 5?
                        if i==5 then
                        if i=5
                        if (i==5)
                        if i=5 then
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: if (i != 5)
Question ID 47
How do you write a conditional statement for executing some statements only if “i” is NOT equal to 5 (in Javascript) ?
                        if <>5
                        if (i != 5)
                        if (i <> 5)
                        if =! 5 then
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: if (i != 5)
Question ID 48
How do you round the number 7.25, to the nearest whole number?
                        Math.round(7.25)
                        Math.rnd(7.25)
                        round(7.25)
                        rnd(7.25)
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: Math.round(7.25)
Question ID 49
What combination of technologies gives AJAX its name?
                        ASP and XAML
                        Asynchronous JavaScript and XML
                        Autonomic Computing and DHTML
                        ASP and XML
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: Asynchronous JavaScript and XML
Question ID 50
Can AJAX be synchronous?
                        True
                        False
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: True
Question ID 51
Which one of these technologies is NOT used in AJAX?
                        JSON
                        XML
                        DHTML
                        DOM
                        Flash
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: Flash
Question ID 52
Ajax is a programming language
                        True
                        False
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: False


Question ID 53
The XMLHttpRequest object can be used on subdomain1.mysite.com to request a page located at subdomain2.mysite.com according to the specification.
                        True
                        False
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: False
Question ID 54
What will be displayed in the following case:
- No content has been previously sent to the client
- You decide to use in your script the PHP header() function to send a 404 error code
- You write exit(); just after this function.
                        A blank page with “HTTP/1.1 404 Not Found”
                        A PHP error
                        A blank page
                        The normal page
                        A customized error page
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: A PHP error
Question ID 55
What is the effect of the “return” instruction when used in a included PHP script?
                        Return to the parent script while ignoring the rest of the included file
                        A PHP error
                        The script stops (same as exit());
                        Nothing, it is ignored
                        It depends if the file is included with include() or require()
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: Return to the parent script while ignoring the rest of the included file



Question ID 56
Which function flush the output buffer and turn off output buffering?
                        ob_flush()
                        ob_end_flush()
                        ob_get_flush()
                        ob_end_clean()
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: ob_flush()
Question ID 57
How are session variables accessed?
                        Through $_GET
                        Through $_POST
                        Through $_REQUEST
                        Through $_SESSIONS
                        None of the above
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: None of the above
Question ID 58
Which of these PHP functions or codes is used to send cookie to the client?
                        cookie()
                        set_cookie()
                        setcookie()
                        $_COOKIE
                        None of the above
                        I don’t know
Answer: setcookie()
Question ID 59
If no expiration time is explicitly set for a cookie, what happens to it?
                        It expires right away
                        It never expires
                        It is not set
                        It expires at the end of the user’s browser session
                        It expires only if the script doesn’t create a server-side session
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: It expires at the end of the user’s browser session
Question ID 60
Consider the following form and subsequent script. What will the script print out if the user types the word “php” and “great” in the two text boxes respectively?
<form action="index.php" method="post">
<input name="element[]">
<input name="element[]">
</form>
<?php
echo $_GET['element'];
?>
                        Nothing
                        Array
                        A notice
                        phpgreat
                        greatphp
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: A notice
Question ID 61
In an HTTPS transaction, how are URLs and query strings passed from the browser to the web server?
                        They are passed in clear text, and the subsequent transaction is encrypted
                        They are encrypted
                        The URL is left in clear text, while the query string is encrypted
                        The URL is encrypted, while the query string is passed in clear text
                        To ensure its encryption, the query string is converted into a header and passed along with the POST information
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: They are encrypted
Question ID 62
The index.php page contains the following code:
<?php
$a = 'a'.file_exists(__FILE__);
$a1 = 'wiki';
$a2 = 'kiwi';
echo ${$a};
?>
What is displayed on this page?
                        A blank page
                        kiwi
                        wiki
                        A PHP error
                        None of the above
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: WIKI
Question ID 63
What will the following script output?
<?php
ob_start();
for ($i = 0; $i < 10; $i++) {
echo $i;
}
$output = ob_get_contents();
ob_end_clean();
echo $ouput;
?>
·         12345678910
·         1234567890
·         0123456789
·         Nothing
·         A notice
·         I don’t know
ANSWER: A notice
Question ID 64
By default, PHP stores session data in:
                        The filesystem
                        A database
                        Virtual memory
                        Shared memory
                        None of the above
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: The filesystem

Question ID 65
Assuming that the client browser is never restarted, how long after the last access will a session “expire” and be subject to garbage collection?
                        After exactly 1,440 seconds
                        After the number of seconds specified in the session.gc_maxlifetime INI setting
                        It will never expire unless it is manually deleted
                        It will only expire when the browser is restarted
                        None of the above
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: After the number of seconds specified in the session.gc_maxlifetime INI setting
Question ID 66
Array values are keyed by ______ values (called indexed arrays) or using ______ values (called associative arrays). Of course, these key methods can be combined as well.
                        Float, string
                        Positive number, negative number
                        Even number, string
                        String, Boolean
                        Integer, string
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: Interger, String
Question ID 67
Consider the following array, called $multi_array. How would the value cat be referenced within the $multi_array array?
<?php
$multi_array = array("red","green",42 => "blue","yellow" =>                array("apple",9 => "pear","banana","orange" =>
array("dog","cat","iguana")
)
);
?>
                        $multi_array['yellow']['apple'][0]
                        $multi_array['blue'][0]['orange'][1]
                        $multi_array[3][3][2]
                        $multi_array['yellow']['orange']['cat']
                        $multi_array['yellow']['orange'][1]
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: $multi_array['yellow']['orange'][1]
Question ID 68
What will the $array array contain at the end of the execution of the following script?
<?php
$array = array ('1', '1');
foreach ($array as $k => $v) {
$v = 2;
}
?>
                        array (’2′, ’2′)
                        array (’1′, ’1′)
                        array (2, 2)
                        array (Null, Null)
                        array (1, 1)
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: array (’1, ’1)
Question ID 69
Assume you would like to sort an array in ascending order by value while preserving key associations. Which of the following PHP sorting functions would you use?
                        ksort()
                        asort()
                        krsort()
                        sort()
                        usort()
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: assort()
Question ID 70
What will the following script output?
<?php
$array = array (3 => 'a', '1b' => 'b', 'c', 'd');
echo ($array[1]);
?>
                        1
                        b
                        c
                        A warning.
                        A notice.
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: A notice
Question ID 71
What elements will the following script output?
<?php
$array = array (true => 'a', 1 => 'b');
var_dump ($aray);
?>
                        1 => ‘b’
                        True => ‘a’, 1 => ‘b’
                        0 => ‘a’, 1 => ‘b’
                        None
                        It will output NULL
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: It will output NULL
Question ID 72
Which of the following will not combine strings $s1 and $s2 into a single string?
                        $s1 + $s2
                        “{$s1}{$s2}”
                        $s1.$s2
                        implode(”, array($s1,$s2))
                        All of the above combine the strings
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: $s1 + $s2
Question ID 73
Given a variable $email containing the string user@example.com, which of the following statements would extract the string example.com?
                        substr($email, strpos($email, “@”));
                        strstr($email, “@”);
                        strchr($email, “@”);
                        substr($email, strpos($email, “@”)+1);
                        strrpos($email, “@”);
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: substr($email, strpos($email, “@”)+1);

Question ID 74
Given a comma-separated list of values in a string, which function from the given list can create an array of each individual value with a single call?
                        strstr()
                        Cannot be done with a single function
                        extract()
                        explode()
                        strtok()
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: explode()
Question ID 75
What will be the output of the following script?
<?php
$s = '12345';
$s[$s[1]] = '2';
echo $s;
?>
                        12345
                        12245
                        22345
                        11345
                        Array
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: 12245
Question ID 76
What happens if you add a string to an integer using the + operator?
                        The interpreter outputs a type mismatch error
                        The string is converted to a number and added to the integer
                        The string is discarded and the integer is preserved
                        The integer and string are concatenated together in a new string
                        The integer is discarded and the string is preserved
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: The string is discarded and the integer is preserved


Question ID 77
What does the built-in delete function do?
                        It deletes a file
                        It deletes a directory
                        It unsets a variable
                        It removes a database row
                        This function does not exist!
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: It deletes a file
Question ID 78
Consider the following script. Which PHP5 function best approximates its behaviour?
<?php
function my_funct ($file_name, $data){
$f = fopen ($file_name, 'w');
fwrite ($f, $data);
fclose ($f);
}
?>
                        file_get_contents()
                        file_put_contents()
                        There is no equivalent function in PHP
                        file()
                        fputs()
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: file_put_contents()
Question ID 79
Which of the following definitions describes the time function?
                        It returns the number of seconds since the UNIX epoch
                        It calculates the time elapsed since the UNIX epoch and expresses it as an integer number
                        It returns the current time measured in the number of seconds since January 1, 1970 00:00:00 GMT
                        All of the above
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: All of the above
Question ID 80
The date() function returns ______________.
                        An integer
                        A floating-point number
                        An array
                        A string
                        None of the above
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: A string
Question ID 81
What does an “inner join” construct do?
                        It joins two tables together into a third permanent table based on a common column
                        It creates a result set based on the rows in common between two tables
                        It creates a result set based on the rows based on one table
                        It creates a result set by joining two tables together and taking all the rows in
                        common plus the rows belonging to one of the tables
                        None of the above
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: It creates a result set based on the rows in common between two tables

Question ID 82
Which of the following is true?
                        Indexing can speed up the insertion of new rows in a table
                        A good indexing strategy helps prevent cross-site scripting attacks
                        Indexes should be designed based on the database’s actual usage
                        Deleting a row from a table causes its indexes to be dropped
                        Indexes are necessary on numeric rows only
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: Indexes should be designed based on the database’s actual usage
Question ID 83
What does the DESC keyword do in the following query?
SELECT * FROM MY_TABLE WHERE ID > 0 ORDER BY ID, NAME DESC
                        It causes the dataset returned by the query to be sorted in descending order
                        It causes rows with the same ID to be sorted by NAME in ascending order
                        It causes rows with the same ID to be sorted by NAME in descending order
                        It causes rows to be sorted by NAME first and then by ID
                        It causes the result set to include a description of the NAME field
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: It causes rows with the same ID to be sorted by NAME in descending order
Question ID 84
Which of the following correctly identify the requirement for a column to be part of the result set of a query that contains a GROUP BY clause?
                        The column must be indexed
                        The column must be a unique key
                        The column must contain an aggregate value and be included in the GROUP BY clause
                        The column must be a primary key
                        The column must not contain NULL values
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: The column must contain an aggregate value and be included in the GROUP BY clause



Question ID 85
Which of the following is the single most important technique that can help you make your PHP application secure from external intrusion?
                        Having strong encryption algorithms
                        Protecting database passwords
                        Using SSL whenever possible
                        Validating all inputs
                        Only using input from trusted sources
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: Validating all inputs
Question ID 86
Although not necessarily foolproof, what of the following can help identify and prevent potential security risks in your code?
                        Being aware of potential security issues as documented in the PHP manual.
                        Logging all circumstances in which your script data validation fails
                        Keeping up to date with the latest versions of PHP, especially those that contain security fixes
                        When using third-party PHP packages, being aware of any security holes found in them and keeping fixes up to date
                        All of the above
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: All of the above
Question ID 87
When an error occurs on your web site, how should it be treated?
                        An error message should be displayed to the user with technical information regarding its apparent cause, so that the web master can address it
                        The error should be logged, and a polite message indicating a server malfunction should be presented to the user
                        An error message with technical information regarding the error should be displayed so that the user can send it to the webmaster and the error should be logged
                        Errors should redirect the users to the home page, as to not indicate a malfunction
                        None of the above
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: The error should be logged, and a polite message indicating a server malfunction should be presented to the user

Question ID 88
What does an opcode cache do?
                        It compiles scripts into binary objects to make them run faster
                        It replaces the Zend Engine to provide a faster interpreter
                        It caches a script’s output to improve its performance
                        It improves performance by caching the intermediate code produced by the parser
                        It caches a script in memory, thus eliminating the need for reloading it from disk at every iteration
                        I don’t know
ANSWER: It improves performance by caching the intermediate code produced by the parser
Question ID 89
Consider the following SQL statement. Which of the following could be good ideas for limiting the amount of data returned by it? (Choose 2)   SELECT * FROM MY_TABLE  
                        If possible, convert the query to a stored procedure
                        If possible within your application, reduce the number of fields retrieved by the query by specifying each field individually as part of the query  and add a WHERE clause
                        If supported by the DBMS, convert the query to a view
                        If the DBMS allows it, use prepared statements
ANSWER: If possible within your application, reduce the number of fields retrieved by the query by specifying each field individually as part of the query and add a WHERE clause
Question ID 90
Which of the following DBMSs do not have a native PHP extension?  
                        MySQL
                        IBM DB/2
                        PostgreSQL
                        Microsoft SQL Server
                        None of the above
ANSWER: None of the above

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Thank you so much for providing your valuable feedback. I will will look into them and update my skills & technologies accordingly.